Accounting (H): An uncomplicated and straightforward paper

Reaction to Leaving Certificate 2021 Accounting (Higher Level) by Ray O’Loughlin, Accounting teacher at The Institute of Education.

Candidates who decided to sit the higher level accounting paper, as opposed to getting calculated grades, were rewarded today.

All the questions on the paper were uncomplicated and very straightforward.

The choice of questions that appeared may have surprised students, especially as incomplete records and tabular statements both failed to appear in Section 2. Cash budgeting also failed to appear in Section 3 for the sixth year in a row. The questions that did appear were very manageable however, and there was excellent choice.


This year students were given a choice of two final accounts-  a sole trader and a manufacturing account. Both were very manageable and most students would probably have opted to do the sole trader one.


This year students had to answer one out of three questions here. Normally they answer two out of three.

One of these questions- the interpretation of accounts. – was guaranteed to appear this year. The alternative questions were published and cash flow statements.

All three were nice questions and the degree of difficulty was minimal.

Students however would have been surprised that incomplete records and tabular statements did not appear in this section.


There was no change to this section this year.

The questions on product costing and flexible budgeting were both very manageable, but the main surprise here was that cash budgets did not come up for the sixth year in a row.